Upon this statement, more than 500,000 Castro supporters came to the front of the presidential palace and forced Urrutia to resign with protests and took what they wanted. On July 23, Castro returns to his resignation and assigns Osvaldo Dorticos, known for his Marxist views, to the new presidency.
In the first year of the revolution, everyone is content. Everyone trusts and loves the Castro regime so much that naturally all power is concentrated in one center. In this period, many reforms are made, especially in the fields of education, health and infrastructure.
In the first 2 years of Castro’s administration, new classes and schools are opened, with a very special emphasis on education. The primary school education system evolves into a program that combines education and work, where children study half of their time in schools and spend half of their time participating in production activities. Qualified individuals (engineers, doctors …) begin to emerge from schools. Prostitution and gambling come to an end.
Health services are also expanded across the country with a social state understanding and set to a certain standard. New polyclinics and health centers are opened, free medical assistance, nutrition and treatment opportunities are created in a way that eliminates the difference between the rural population’s access to health services and the people living in urban areas. Vaccination against childhood diseases begins. With the improvement of birth conditions, there is a noticeable decrease in child mortality.
The third stage is the improvement of the country’s infrastructure conditions. In the first six months, 1000 kilometers are covered, and 300 million dollars are spent on water system and sanitation projects. In order to solve the problem of homelessness, more than 800 new houses are built every month, and nursery schools for children and rest homes and care centers for the elderly and disabled are opened.
In the 1960s, there was a Cold War between the two giants of the world, the capitalist and liberal democratic USA and the Socialist Soviet Union led by a Marxist-Leninist philosophy under the leadership of the Communist Party, and of course Cuba will be next to the Soviet Union as the most important stronghold of Socialism in the American continent. The United States gradually begins to see Cuba as a threat. The questions in the head are whether the Soviets use Cuba against the USA and whether Cuba begins to have a Soviet influence in Latin America.
Castro met with Anastas Mikoyan, First Deputy First Deputy of the Soviet Union in February 1960, and received a loan for Cuba’s pesticide, industrial products, crude oil and $ 100 million loan from the Soviets in exchange for sugar, fruit, yarn and leather products. makes a deal. Later, he asks the giant refinery companies in the country, which was controlled by the USA at the time, to process the crude oil it bought from the Soviets, but received a refusal. In retaliation, Castro also decides to expropriate the oil refineries on June 29, 1960. After 4 days, the USA stops purchasing sugar from Cuba. The counterattack from Castro is not delayed. In August, it decides to expropriate the telephone and electricity companies in the country, US-sourced assets such as banks and sugar factories.